Letter Requesting BMJ to Retract “Investigation”

November 5, 2015

Dear Editor:

A recent article by journalist Nina Teicholz, which was published as a “BMJ Investigation” of the Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), included numerous errors and misrepresentations. Below we have summarized only factual errors, excluding incorrect or biased interpretations of research. The mistakes are bolded.

Because the “investigation” as a whole is so riddled with errors, we urge the BMJ to retract it, not only to inform your readers, but also to protect the BMJ’s credibility.




1.) Teicholz states that “in its 2015 report the committee stated that it did not use NEL reviews for more than 70% of the topics, including some of the most controversial issues in nutrition. Instead, it relied on systematic reviews by external professional associations, almost exclusively the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC), or conducted an [sic] hoc examination of the scientific literature without well defined systematic criteria for how studies or outside review papers were identified, selected, or evaluated.

Correction:  In Appendix E-2, the Evidence Portfolios for the key topics addressed by Teicholz specify the search strategy, inclusion criteria, search results, and AMSTAR ratings for methodological quality for the existing systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA).




2.) Teicholz states that “instead of requesting a new NEL review for the recent literature on this crucial topic, however, the 2015 committee recommended extending the current cap on saturated fats, at 10% of calories, based on a review by the AHA and ACC, a 2010 NEL review, and the committee’s ad hoc selection of seven review papers (see table A on thebmj.com).” Table A states that “no methodology for this section of the report: no reason given for why certain studies were selected for review and others were not, nor how they were evaluated relative to each other."

Correction: Appendix E-2.43 gives the search strategy, inclusion criteria, search results, and AMSTAR ratings for methodological quality for the seven review papers, along with a list of excluded articles and the reasons for exclusion. (Note: In Table A, Teicholz states that “the overall conclusion [of the 2012 Cochrane review by Hooper, et al.] is therefore that while saturated-fat restriction appears to reduce heart attack risk, it does not reduce overall or cardiovascular mortality (death), which is arguably the more important endpoint.” This statement contradicts Teicholz’s article, which said that Hooper, et al. “failed to confirm an association between saturated fats and heart disease.” The BMJ corrected this error a month after it was published.)




3.) Teicholz states that “use of external reviews by professional associations is problematic because these groups conduct literature reviews according to different standards and are supported by food and drug companies.”

Correction: The “problematic” external review cited by Teicholz was not conducted solely by professional associations. The review was actually a “clinical practice guideline” developed by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology in partnership with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The NHLBI’s website clearly describes its rigorous standards for assessing the quality of studies and its policy for managing potential conflicts of interest and relationships with industry.




4.) Teicholz states that “in the NEL systematic review on saturated fats from 2010…fewer than 12 small trials are cited, and none supports the hypothesis that saturated fats cause heart disease (see table B on thebmj.com).”

Correction: It is incorrect to state that none of the trials cited in the 2010 NEL review supports the hypothesis that saturated fats cause heart disease. The 2010 NEL review found “strong evidence” that saturated fat intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.  In Table B, Teicholz over-rules the 2010 NEL review by assigning each trial to one of four categories (a) “trials that should not have been included because they did not meet inclusion criteria,” (b) “trials that should not have been included because they did not test normally occuring [sic] saturated fats or saturated fats at all,” (c) “trials concluding that saturated fats had a neutrial [sic] or beneficial effect on health,” and (d) “trials with mixed results on blood lipid measures.” (Note: Table B has additional errors too numerous to list here.) Thus, Teicholz concludes that the 2010 NEL review is substandard, but she also argues that the 2015 “committee’s report used weak scientific standards,” because it did not rely sufficiently on NEL reviews. 




5.) Teicholz states that “perhaps more important are the studies that have never been systematically reviewed by any of the dietary guideline committees. These include the large, government funded randomized controlled trials on saturated fats and heart disease from the 1960s and ’70s. Taken together, these trials followed more than 25 000 people, some for up to 12 years. They are some of the most ambitious, well controlled nutrition studies ever undertaken.”

Correction: It is incorrect to state that these trials were not reviewed by the DGAC. The DGAC considered a 2012 Cochrane review that included 4 of the 6 trials cited by Teicholz and a 2010 meta-analysis that included 5 of the 6 trials cited by Teicholz. (The review and meta-analysis both concluded that replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats reduce the risk of heart disease.) One trial cited by Teicholz is excluded from most meta-analyses because it tested a multifactorial intervention including drug treatment for hypertension, counseling for cigarette smoking, and dietary advice for lowering blood cholesterol levels.




6.) Teicholz states that “there have been at a minimum, three National Institutes of Health funded trials on some 50 000 people showing that a diet low in fat and saturated fat is ineffective for fighting heart disease, obesity, diabetes, or cancer. Two of these trials are omitted from the NEL review... When the omitted findings from these three clinical trials are factored into the review, the overwhelming preponderance of rigorous evidence does not support any of the dietary committee’s health claims for its recommended diets.”

Correction: The two trials that were “omitted from the NEL review” did not assess the impact of diet “for fighting heart disease, obesity, diabetes, or cancer.” They assessed the impact of diet on serum cholesterol levels. Furthermore, all three trials  were included in the Cochrane review that was considered by the DGAC.




7.) Teicholz states that “The report also gave a strong rating to the evidence that its recommended diets can fight heart disease.…The committee reviewed other, more recent studies but not using any systematic or predefined methods.”

Correction:  Appendix E-2.26 gives the search strategy, inclusion criteria, search results, and AMSTAR ratings for methodological quality for the six “more recent studies,” along with a list of excluded articles and the reasons for exclusion.




8.) In Table D, Teicholz includes sections (under “dietary patterns and heart disease” and “dietary patterns and obesity”) entitled “DGAC ad hoc review of the scientific literature” where she states that “no systematic methodology is given for the selection of these studies. It is therefore impossible to know if they fairly represent the literature.”

Correction: These were not ad hoc reviews. The DGAC details the systematic methodology for selecting these studies in Appendices E-2.26 and E2.27. Note: Teicholz’s Table D consists largely of Teicholz’s criticism of the NEL’s Systematic Reviews on the Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Health Outcomes, published in 2014. Note that Teicholz argues that NEL reviews are substandard, but she also argues that the 2015 “committee’s report used weak scientific standards,” because it did not rely sufficiently on NEL reviews. 




9.) Teicholz states that “Consulting the NEL for a review on this topic turns up a surprising fact: a systematic review on health and red meat has not been done. Although several analyses look at ‘animal protein products,’ these reviews include eggs, fish, and dairy and therefore do not isolate the health effects of red meat, or meat of any kind.

Correction: The NEL reviews cited by Teicholz do examine the results on red meat and processed meats separately from the results on other animal proteins.




10.) Teicholz states that “The committee’s approach to the evidence on saturated fats and low carbohydrate diets reflects an apparent failure to address any evidence that contradicts what has been official nutritional advice for the past 35 years. The foundation of that advice has been to recommend eating less fat and fewer animal products (meat, dairy, eggs) while shifting calorie intake towards more plant foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, and vegetable oils) for good health. And in the past decades, this advice has remained virtually unchanged.”

Correction: The 2015 DGAC did not recommend “eating less fat” or reducing the consumption of eggs or dairy products. (In fact, Teicholz wrote in a February New York Times op-ed that “experts on the committee that develops the country’s dietary guidelines acknowledged that they had ditched the low-fat diet.”) The Dietary Guidelines for Americans has never recommended eating less meat or dairy products. (In some editions, the DGA has included advice such as “moderate your use of eggs” or “use egg yolks and whole eggs in moderation. Use egg whites and egg substitutes freely…”).




11.) Teicholz states that “studies showed mixed health outcomes for saturated fats, but early critical reviews, including one by the National Academy of Sciences, which cautioned against the inconclusive state of the evidence on saturated fats and heart disease, were dismissed by the USDA when it launched the first dietary guidelines in 1980.”

Correction: The USDA (and DHHS) published the 1980 Dietary Guidelines for Americans in February 1980. Toward Healthful Diets, the National Academy of Sciences report cited by Teicholz, was published in May 1980. USDA could not have dismissed Toward Healthful Diets, because the report was published after the Dietary Guidelines were released.




In summary, the Teicholz/BMJ “investigation” is based on non-facts.  Such a paper has no place in the pages of a prominent scientific journal and should be retracted. 

Sincerely,

*Steven Abrams, MD
Chair of Pediatrics
Director, Dell Pediatric Research Institute
Dell Medical School
University of Texas at Austin
Austin, Texas, USA

*Lucile L. Adams-Campbell, PhD
Professor of Oncology
Associate Dean
Associate Director, Minority Health & Health Disparities Research
Georgetown University Medical Center
Washington, D.C., USA

Sharon R. Akabas, PhD
Director, MS in Nutrition
Associate Director for Educational Initiatives
Columbia University
Institute of Human Nutrition
New York, New York, USA

*Cheryl Anderson, PhD, MPH
Associate Professor of Preventive Medicine
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine
School of Medicine
University of California, San Diego
La Jolla, California, USA

Lawrence J. Appel, MD, MPH
C. David Molina, MD, MPH Professor of Medicine Epidemiology and International Health
Director, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Fernando Arós Borau, MD, PhD
Department of Cardiology
University Hospital of Araba
Vitoria, Spain

Alberto Ascherio, MD, DrPH
Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition
Department of Nutrition
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Professor of Medicine
Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Guy De Backer, MD, PhD
Emeritus Professor in Public Health
Ghent University
Ghent, Belgium

Adam B. Becker, PhD, MPH
Executive Director
Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children
Chicago, Illinois, USA

Maira Bes-Rastrollo, PharmD, PhD
Associate Professor
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
Faculty of Medicine
University of Navarra
Navarra, Spain

Henry Blackburn, MD
Professor Emeritus, Epidemiology & Community Health
Division of Epidemiology & Community Health
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Carol J. Boushey, PhD, MPH, RD
Associate Research Professor
Epidemiology Program
University of Hawaii Cancer Center
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, MD, PhD
Medical Practitioner, Internist, and Gastroenterologist
Practitioner at Antoine Béclère University Hospital
Inserm Research Director
Head of INSERM UMR 1018
Clamart, France

*J. Thomas Brenna, PhD
Professor of Human Nutrition and of Chemistry
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York, USA

Ingeborg Brouwer, PhD
Professor of Nutrition for Healthy Living
Health Sciences
VU University Amsterdam
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Kelly D. Brownell, PhD
Dean, Sanford School of Public Policy
Robert L. Flowers Professor of Public Policy
Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience
Duke University
Durham, North Carolina, USA

Aurora Bueno Cavanillas, MD, PhD
Professor of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
University of Granada
Granada, Spain

Pilar Buil-Cosiales, PhD, MD
Primary Health Care Practitioner
Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea
National Health System
Navarra, Spain

Joanne Burke, PhD, RD, LD
Director of the University of New Hampshire Dietetic Internship
Thomas W. Haas Professor in Sustainable Food Systems
University of New Hampshire
Durham, New Hampshire, USA

Carlos A. Camargo, Jr., MD, DrPH
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Professor of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

*Wayne Campbell, PhD
Professor, Department of Nutrition Science
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

Raffaele De Caterina, MD, PhD
Professor and Chair of Cardiology
G. d’Annunzio University - Chieti-Pescara
Chieti, Italy

Alan Chait, MD
Edwin L. Bierman Professor of Medicine
Head, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington, USA

Jorge E. Chavarro, MD, ScD
Associate Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

*Steven K. Clinton, MD, PhD
John B. and Jane T. McCoy Chair of Cancer Research
The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center
Professor
Division of Medical Oncology
Department of Internal Medicine
The Ohio State University School of Medicine
Columbus, Ohio, USA

Isobel R. Contento, PhD
Mary Swartz Rose Professor of Nutrition and Education
Coordinator, Program in Nutrition
Faculty Director, Laurie M. Tisch Center for Food, Education & Policy
Department of Health and Behavior Studies
Teachers College Columbia University
New York, New York, USA

Dolores Corella, PhD
Professor, Preventive Medicine and Public Health
Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit
School of Medicine
University of Valencia
Valencia, Spain

Patricia Crawford, DrPH
Senior Director of Research, Nutrition Policy Institute
Cooperative Extension Specialist
University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources
Berkeley, California, USA

Lidia A. Daimiel-Ruiz, PhD
Principal Investigator
Pabellón Central del Antiguo Hospital de Cantoblanco
University de Cantoblanco
Madrid, Spain

Richard J. Deckelbaum, MD, CM, FRCPC
Robert R. Williams Professor of Nutrition
Professor of Pediatrics
Professor of Epidemiology
Director, Institute of Human Nutrition
College of Physicians and Surgeons
Columbia University Medical Center
New York, New York, USA

Jean-Pierre Després, PhD, FAHA, FIAS
Scientific Director
International Chair on Cardiometabolic Risk
Professor, Department of Kinesiology
Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval
Director of Research, Cardiology
Québec Heart and Lung Institute
Québec, Canada

William Dietz, MD, PhD
Director, Sumner M. Redstone Global Center for Prevention and Wellness
Milken Institute School of Public Health
George Washington University
Washington, D.C., USA

Deirdre A. Dingman, DrPH, MPH, CHES
Postdoctoral Fellow
Public Health Law Research
Temple University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Ligia J. Dominguez, MD
Geriatric Unit
University of Palermo
Palermo, Italy

Ana Clara Duran, MS, PhD
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
University of Illinois, Chicago
Chicago, Illinois, USA

Ibrahim Elmadfa, PhD
Emeritus Professor of Nutrition
University of Vienna
Vienna, Austria

Javier Díez Espino, MD, PhD
Primary Care Manager
Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasubidea
Navarra, Spain

Ramon Estruch, MD, PhD
Department of Internal Medicine
Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona
Barcelona, Spain

Wafaie Fawzi, DrPH
Richard Saltonstall Professor of Population Sciences
Professor of Nutrition, Epidemiology, and Global Health
Chair, Department of Global Health and Population
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Alejandro Fernández-Montero, MD, PhD
Project Director, “Healthy Diet, It’s up to you”
Department of Prevention of Occupational Hazards
University of Navarra-IDISNA
Navarra, Spain

Oscar H. Franco, MD, PhD, FESC, FFPH
Professor of Preventive Medicine
PI Cardiovascular Epidemiology group
Director ErasmusAGE
CEO Erasmus Epidemiology Resources
Deputy Science Director NIHES
Department of Epidemiology
Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam
Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Gary E. Fraser, MD, PhD
Professor of Epidemiology
Loma Linda University
Loma Linda, California, USA

Itziar Zazpe Garcia, PhD, RD
Professor
Department of Clinical Science and Physiology
Universidad de Navarra
Navarra, Spain

Christopher Gardner, PhD
Professor of Medicine
Director of Nutrition Studies
Director of NIH/NHLBI Postdoctoral Training Program
Stanford Prevention Research Center
Palo Alto, California, USA

Alfredo Gea, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health
University of Navarra, Spain
Navarra, Spain

Angel Gil, PhD
President of the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT)
Full Professor Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology
Centre of Biomedical Research
University of Granada
Granada, Spain

David C. Goff, Jr., MD, PhD
Dean
Colorado School of Public Health
Aurora, Colorado, USA

Carlos A. González, MD, PhD
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer (Emeritus)
Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme
Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO)
Barcelona, Spain

Teresita González de Cosío, PhD, MSc
Directora de Departamento de Salud
Universidad Iberoamericana
Mexico City, Mexico

Michael I. Goran, PhD
Director, Childhood Obesity Research Center
Co-Director, USC Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute
Professor of Preventive Medicine; Physiology & Biophysics; and Pediatrics
The Dr. Robert C. & Veronica Atkins Chair in Childhood Obesity & Diabetes
USC Keck School of Medicine
Los Angeles, California, USA

Antonio M. Gotto Jr., MD, DPhil
Professor of Medicine
Provost for Medical Affairs and Dean Emeritus Weill Cornell Medical College
New York, New York, USA

Philip Greenland, MD
Harry W. Dingman Professor
Department of Preventive Medicine
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Chicago, Illinois, USA

Joan Gussow, EdD
Mary Swartz Rose Professor Emerita of Nutrition Education
Teachers College
Columbia University
New York, New York, USA

Michael W. Hamm, PhD
C.S. Mott Professor of Sustainable Agriculture
Director, Center for Regional Food Systems
Departments of CSUS, PSM, FSHN
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan, USA

Carole V. Harris, PhD
Vice President, Public Health and Survey Research Division
ICF International
Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Serge Hercberg, MD, PhD
Chef d'équipe - Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle (EREN)
Centre de Recherche Épidémiologie et Statistique Sorbonne Paris Cité
Université Paris
Bobigny, France

*Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD
Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Professor of Medicine
Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Rod Jackson, MBChB, PhD
Professor of Epidemiology
Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences
University of Auckland
Auckland, New Zealand

David Jacobs, PhD
Professor, Division of Epidemiology & Community Health
School of Public Health
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Michael F. Jacobson, PhD
President
Center for Science in the Public Interest
Washington, D.C., USA

Enrique Jacoby, MD, MPH
Regional Advisor on Nutrition and Active Living
NMH Pan American Health Organization
World Health Organization
Washington, D.C., USA

Philip T. James, CBE, MD, DSc
Honorary Professor of Nutrition
London School of Hygiene
London, United Kingdom

David Jenkins, MD, PhD, DSc
Professor, Canada Research Chair in Nutrition and Metabolism
Department of Nutritional Sciences
Director, Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael’s Hospital
University of Toronto
Toronto, Canada

Laura Johnson, PhD
Lecturer in Public Health Nutrition
Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences
School for Policy Studies
University of Bristol
Bristol, United Kingdom

Martijn B. Katan, PhD
Emeritus Professor of Nutrition
VU University Amsterdam
Department of Health Sciences
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

David Katz, MD, MPH, FACPM, FACP
Director, Yale University Prevention Research Center
President, American College of Lifestyle Medicine
Founder, True Health Initiative
New Haven, Connecticut, USA

George A. Kelley, DA, FACSM
Professor & Director, Meta-Analytic Research Group
School of Public Health
Department of Biostatistics
Co-Director, WVCTSI Clinical Research Design, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics Program
West Virginia University
Morgantown, West Virginia, USA

Thomas Kelly, PhD, MA
Chief Sustainability Officer/Director
Sustainability Institute
University of New Hampshire
Durham, New Hampshire, USA

Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, PhD
Research Director
COMUE Sorbonne-Paris-Cité
Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle (EREN)
Centre d’Epidémiologie et Biostatistiques Paris Nord
Institute for Health and Medical Research (Inserm, U1153)
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA, U1125)
Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM)
Paris 13 University
Paris, France

Kay-Tee Khaw, MD, MSc, PhD
University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine
Clinical Gerontology Unit
Addenbrooke’s Hospital
Cambridge, United Kingdom

Vivica I. Kraak, PhD, RD
Assistant Professor of Food and Nutrition Policy
Department of Human Nutrition, Foods & Exercise
Virginia Tech
Blacksburg, Virginia, USA

Fernanda Kroker, MSc, PhD
Scientific Researcher
Population Nutrition
Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama -INCAP-
Guatemala City, Guatemala

Daan Kromhout, PhD, MPH
Emeritus Professor
Division of Human Nutrition
Wageningen University
Wageningen, The Netherlands

Lewis H. Kuller, MD, DrPH
Department of Epidemiology
Graduate School of Public Health
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

Larry Kushi, ScD
Director of Scientific Policy
Kaiser Permanente
Oakland, California, USA

Darwin R. Labarthe, MD, MPH, PhD
Professor of Preventive Medicine
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Chicago, Illinois, USA

Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventos, PhD
Associate Professor
Department of Nutrition and Food Science
School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona
Barcelona, Spain

José Lapetra, MD, PhD
Médico de Familia
Responsable del Grupo de Investigación "Dieta, Nutrición y Prevención de Enfermedades en Atención Primaria"
CIBEROBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III
Unidad de Investigación del Distrito Sanitario Atención Primaria Sevilla
Sevilla, Spain

Robert S. Lawrence, MD
Director, Center for a Livable Future
Professor of Environmental Health Sciences and International Health
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Sally Ann Lederman, PhD
Special Lecturer
Institute of Human Nutrition
Columbia University
New York, New York, USA

Allen S. Levine, PhD
Professor, Food Science and Nutrition
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Elyse Levine, PhD, RD
Associate
Booz Allen Hamilton
Rockville, Maryland, USA

David A. Levitsky, PhD, MPhil, MS
Stephen H. Weiss Presidential Fellow
Professor of Nutrition and Psychology
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York, USA

Barry Lewis, MD, PhD, FRCP, FRCPath
Emeritus Professor
University of London
London, United Kingdom

*Alice Lichtenstein, DSc
Senior Scientist and Director
Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory
Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging
Professor of Medicine
Tufts University School of Medicine
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Bonnie F. Liebman, MS
Director of Nutrition
Center for Science in the Public Interest
Washington, D.C., USA

Esther Lopez-Garcia, PhD, MPH
Associate Professor
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
School of Medicine
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Madrid, Spain

José López Miranda, MD, PhD
Catedrático de Medicina Interna
Vicedecano de Asuntos Hospitalarios
Director UGC Medicina Interna
Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia
Facultad de Medicina
Universidad de Cordoba
Cordoba, Spain

Graham MacGregor, MA, MB, BChir
Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine
Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine
Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary
University of London
London, United Kingdom
Meena Mahadevan, PhD
Associate Professor
Program Coordinator for Applied Nutrition
Department of Health and Nutrition Sciences
Montclair State University
Montclair, New Jersey, USA

Vasanti Malik, ScD
Research Scientist
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Mario Mancini, MD
Emeritus Professor
University of Naples
Naples, Italy

James Mann, MD
Professor, Human Nutrition and Medicine
Dunedin School of Medicine
University of Otago
Otago, New Zealand

JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH
Professor of Medicine
Michael and Lee Bell Professor of Women's Health
Harvard Medical School
Professor, Department of Epidemiology
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Chief, Division of Preventive Medicine
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Barrie Margetts, PhD, FFPH, MSc
Professor Emeritus of Medicine
University of Southampton
Southampton, United Kingdom

Miguel A. Martinez-Gonzalez, MD, PhD, MPH
Chair, Department of Public Health
University of Navarra-CIBEROBN
Navarra, Spain

J. Alfredo Martinez Hernandez, D.Pharm, MD, PhD
Professor
Department of Nutrition, Food Science, Physiology and Toxicology
School of Pharmacy
University of Navarra
Navarra, Spain

William McCarthy, PhD
Adjunct Professor
UCLA Fielding School of Public Health
Department of Health Policy and Management
Los Angeles, California, USA

*Barbara Millen, DrPH, RD
Founder and President
Millennium Prevention, Inc.
Westwood, Massachusetts, USA

Nana Gletsu Miller, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition Science
College of Health and Human Sciences
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

Marc Molendijk, PhD
Assistant Professor Clinical Psychology
Leiden University and Leiden University Medical Center
Leiden, The Netherlands

Carlos A. Monteiro, MD, PhD
Professor of Nutrition and Public Health
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health
University of Sáo Paulo
Sáo Paulo, Brazil

Roni Neff, PhD, MS
Assistant Professor, Environmental Health Sciences
Bloomberg School of Public Health
Program Director, Food System Sustainability
Center for a Livable Future
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, Maryland, USA

*Miriam Nelson, PhD
Associate Dean, Tisch College of Citizenship and Public Service
Professor, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy
Tufts University
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

*Marian L. Neuhouser, PhD, RD
Full Member, Cancer Prevention Program
Division of Public Health Sciences
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Seattle, Washington, USA

Kaare R. Norum, MD, PhD
Professor Emeritus
Department of Nutrition
Faculty of Medicine
University of Oslo
Oslo, Norway

Salvatore Panico, MD, MS
Professor of Internal Medicine
Federico II University
Naples, Italy

Angeliki Papadaki, PhD, MSc, FHEA
Lecturer in Public Health Nutrition
Programme Director, MSc Nutrition, Physical Activity and Public Health
Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences
School for Policy Studies
University of Bristol
Bristol, United Kingdom

Diana C. Parra, PhD, PT, MPH
Assistant Professor
Program in Physical Therapy and Department of Surgery (Prevention)
Scholar, Institute for Public Health
Washington University School of Medicine
St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Emma Patterson, PhD
Project Manager for School Food Sweden
Community Nutrition and Physical Activity
Karolinska Institutet
Stockholm, Sweden
Jan I. Pedersen, MD, PhD
Emeritus Professor
Department of Nutrition
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
University of Oslo
Oslo, Norway

*Rafael Perez-Escamilla, PhD
Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health
Director, Office of Public Health Practice
Director, Global Health Concentration
Yale School of Public Health
New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Francisco Perez-Jimenez, MD, PhD
Full Professor of Internal Medicine
Reina Sofia University Hospital
University of Cordoba
Cordoba, Spain

F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer, MD
Professor of Medicine
Institute of Human Nutrition
Columbia University
New York, New York, USA

María Puy Portillo, DPharm
Professor of Nutrition
Director, Nutrición y Obesidad
Department of Pharmacy and Food Science
University of the Basque Country
Bilbao, Spain

John D. Potter, MD, PhD
Senior Advisor, Public Health Sciences Division
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Seattle, Washington, USA

Neil Poulter, MD
Professor of Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine
Imperial College
London, United Kingdom

Pekka Puska, MD, PhD, MPolSc
Professor, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Finland
Past President, World Heart Federation (WHF)
Past President, International Association of National Public Health Institutes
Helsinki, Finland

Kalevi Pyörälä, MD
Emeritus Professor of Medicine
University of Eastern Finland
Kuopio, Finland

Tim Radak, DrPH, MPH, RD
Academic Coordinator for DrPH and PhD Public Health Programs
College of Health Sciences
Walden University
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Sujatha Rajaram, PhD
Chair, SPH Doctoral Committee
Program Director, DrPH in Nutrition
School of Public Health
Loma Linda University
Loma Linda, California, USA

Mike Rayner, DPhil
Professor of Population Health
Director, British Heart Foundation Centre on Population Approaches for Non-Communicable Disease Prevention
Nuffield Department of Population Health
University of Oxford
Oxford, United Kingdom

Cristina Razquin Burillo, PhD
Colaborador de investigación
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
School of Medicine
University of Navarra
Navarra, Spain

Bill Reger-Nash, EdD
Professor Emeritus
West Virginia University School of Public Health
Associate Chair, Morgantown Pedestrian Safety Board
Morgantown, West Virginia, USA

Shaun Riebl, PhD, RDN, LDN
Clinical Assistant Professor
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Gillings School of Global Public Health and UNC School of Medicine
Department of Nutrition
Department of Medicine - Division of Nephrology and Hypertension
UNC Hospitals Kidney and Hypertension Specialty Clinic
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

Eric Rimm, ScD
Professor of Medicine
Harvard Medical School
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital
Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition
Director, Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Ulf Risérus, MMED, PhD
Associate Professor in Clinical Nutrition
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences
Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism
Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University
Uppsala, Sweden

Lorrene Ritchie, PhD, RD
Director, Nutrition Policy Institute
Cooperative Extension Specialist
University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources
Berkeley, California, USA

Juan Rivera Dommarco, PhD, MS
Director
Center for Research in Nutrition and Health
Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica
Cuernavaca, Mexico

Kim Robien, PhD, RD, CSO, FAND
Associate Professor
Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Milken Institute School of Public Health
George Washington University
Washington, D.C., USA

Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, MD, PhD
Professor of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
School of Medicine
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Madrid, Spain

Dora Romaguera, MSc, PhD
Institut d’Investigació Sanitària de Palma (IdISPa) and CIBER-OBN
Hospital Universitari Son Espases, Unitat de Recerca
Palma de Mallorca, Spain

Emilio Ros, MD, PhD
Former Director, Lipid Clinic
Endocrinology & Nutrition Service
Hospital Clínic
CIBERobn, ISCIII, Spain
Barcelona, Spain

Donald (Diego) Rose, PhD, MPH
Professor and Head of Nutrition Section
School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine
Tulane University
New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

Miguel Ruiz-Canela, PhD, MPH
Associate Professor
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
University of Navarra
Navarra, Spain

Joan Sabaté, MD, DrPH
Professor of Nutrition
School of Public Health
Loma Linda University
Loma Linda, California, USA

Frank Sacks, MD, ScB
Professor of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
Department of Nutrition
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Guillermo Saez Tormo, MD, PhD
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Coordinator for International Relations and Mobility Programs
Faculty of Medicine and Odontology
Service of Clinical Analysis
University Hospital Doctor Peset Aleixandre
University of Valencia
Valencia, Spain

Jordi Salas-Salvadó, MD, PhD
Professor of Nutrition
Director, Human Nutrition Unit
Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, IISPV
School of Medicine
Rovira i Virgili University
CIBERobn, Instituto Carlos III
Director, Centre Català de la Nutrició - Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Past President, Federation of Spanish Food, Nutrition and Dietetic Scientific Societies
Director, Red Iberoamericana RIBESMET
Chairman, INC - World Forum for Nutrition Research and Dissemination
Reus, Spain

Almudena Sánchez-Villegas, PhD
Associate Professor of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
Department of Clinical Sciences
Universidad de las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Las Palmas, Spain

Wim H.M. Saris, MD, PhD
Professor of Human Nutrition
Department of Human Biology
NUTRIM: School of Nutrition and Translational Research
Maastricht University Medical Centre
Maastricht, The Netherlands

Dennis Savaiano, PhD, MS
Virginia C. Meredith Professor
Director, North Central Nutrition Education Center
Department of Nutrition Science
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

Matthias B. Schulze, DrPH
German Institute of Human Nutrition
Department of Molecular Epidemiology
Nuthetal, Germany

Ursula Schwab, PhD
Associate Professor, Nutrition Therapy
Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition
School of Medicine
University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus
Kuopio, Finland

Marlene B. Schwartz, PhD
Director
Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity
University of Connecticut
Storrs, Connecticut, USA

Jacob C. Seidell, PhD
Professor of Nutrition and Health/University Professor
VU University Amsterdam
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Lluis Serra-Majem, MD, MSc, PhD
Professor of Public Health
Director, Public Health Nutrition Research Center, University of Barcelona
President, Nutrition Without Borders
University of Gran Canaria
Gran Canaria, Spain

A. G. Shaper, FRCP, FRCPath, FFPHM
Ex-director, British Regional Heart Study
University College of London
London, United Kingdom

*Anna Maria Siega-Riz, PhD
Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition
Associate Dean for Academic Affairs
Gillings School of Global Public Health
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

Lesley Schmidt Sindberg, MPH
Senior Research Coordinator
Healthy Eating Research
University of Minnesota School of Public Health
St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Jeremiah Stamler, MD
Professor Emeritus, Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Chicago, Illinois, USA

Meir Stampfer, MD, DrPH
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Associate Director, Channing Division of Network Medicine
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Marie-Pierre St.-Onge, PhD, FAHA
Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine
New York Obesity Research Center
Institute of Human Nutrition
College of Physicians & Surgeons
Columbia University
New York, New York, USA

*Mary Story, PhD, RD
Professor of Global Health and Community and Family Medicine
Duke University
Durham, North Carolina, USA

Boyd Swinburn, MBChB, MD, FRACP, FNZCPHM
Professor of Population Nutrition and Global Health
University of Auckland
Alfred Deakin Professor
Deakin University, Melbourne
Melbourne, Australia

Daniel R. Taber, PhD, MPH
Assistant Professor
Department of Health Promotion & Behavioral Sciences
University of Texas School of Public Health
Austin, Texas, USA

Lindsey Smith Taillie, PhD, MPH
Research Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition
Fellow, Carolina Population Center
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

Linda Tapsell, PhD, FDAA, AM
Discipline Leader, Nutrition and Dietetics
Graduate School of Medicine
Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health
University of Wollongong
Wollongong, Australia

Cynthia Thomson, PhD, RD
Professor, Health Promotion Sciences
Director, University of Arizona Canyon Ranch Center for Prevention & Health Promotion
Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona, USA

Francisco J. Tinahones, MD, PhD
Professor of Medicine
Director, Endocrinology and Nutrition Services, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria
Coordinator, Complications of Obesity, CIBEROBN
University of Málaga
Málaga, Spain

Estefania Toledo, MD, PhD, MPH
Associate Professor
University of Navarra
Navarra, Spain

Mathilde Touvier, PhD, HDR
Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistiques Sorbonne Paris Cité
Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle
Universités Paris 5, 7 et 13
Bobigny Cedex, France

Alison Tovar, PhD, MPH
Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences
University of Rhode Island
Kingston, Rhode Island, USA

Antonia Trichopoulou, MD
Emeritus Professor, Nutritional Epidemiology
University of Athens Medical School
Athens, Greece

Josep A. Tur, PhD
Professor of Physiology
Research Group on Community Nutrition & Oxidative Stress
University of the Balearic Islands & CIBERobn CB12/03/30038
Palma de Mallorca, Spain

Matti Uusitupa, MD, PhD
Professor Emeritus
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition
University of Eastern Finland
Joensuu, Finland

Linda Van Horn, PhD, RD
Professor, Preventive Medicine
Associate Dean for Faculty Development
Feinberg School of Medicine
Northwestern University
Chicago, Illinois, USA

Carlo La Vecchia, MD
Professor of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health
Università degli Studi di Milano
Milan, Italy

Jesus Vioque, MD, PhD, MPH
Unidad de Epidemiología de la Nutrición
Campus San Juan. Facultad de Medicina
Universidad Miguel Hernandez
Alicante, Spain

David Wallinga, MD
Senior Health Officer
Natural Resources Defense Council
San Francisco, California, USA

May Wang, DrPH
Professor, Community Health Sciences
David Geffen School of Medicine
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California, USA

Dianne S. Ward, EdD
Professor, Department of Nutrition
Gillings School of Global Public Health
University of North Carolina
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

Julia Wärnberg, PhD
Nutritionist
University of Malaga
Malaga, Spain

Connie M. Weaver, PhD
Distinguished Professor and Department Head
Department of Nutrition Science
Director, Women's Global Health Institute
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

Howell Wechsler, EdD, MPH
Chief Executive Officer
Alliance for a Healthier Generation
Washington, D.C., USA

Elisabete Weiderpass, MD, PhD, MSc
Professor of Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway
Tromsø, Norway
Senior Cancer Epidemiologist, Department of Etiological Cancer Research, Cancer Registry of Norway
Oslo, Norway
Professor of Medical Epidemiology, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet
Stockholm, Sweden
Group Leader, Genetic Epidemiology Group, Folkhälsan Research Center
Helsinki, Finland

Shelley Weinstock, PhD, CNS, FACN
Career Services
Institute of Human Nutrition
Columbia University
New York, New York, USA

Emily Welker, MPH, RD
Program Coordinator
Healthy Eating Research
Duke Global Health Institute
Duke University
Durham, North Carolina, USA

Paul Whelton, MD, MSc
Show Chwan Professor of Global Public Health
Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine
New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

Walter Willett, MD, DrPH, MPH
Frederick John Stare Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition
Chair, Department of Nutrition
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Professor, Department of Medicine
Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Alicja Wolk, DMSc
Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology
Vice-chairman, Institute of Environmental Medicine
Head, Division of Nutritional Epidemiology
Karolinska Institutet
Stockholm, Sweden

Jayne Woodside, PhD
Nutrition and Metabolism Group
Centre for Public Health
Belfast, United Kingdom

Kana Wu, MD, PhD
Senior Research Scientist
Department of Nutrition
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Lisa R. Young, PhD, RD
Adjunct Professor of Nutrition
New York University
New York, New York, USA

*2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee member

Affiliations are listed for identification purposes only.

Graduate Students

Stacy Blondin, MSPH
USDA Doctoral Fellow
ChildObesity180
Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy
Tufts University
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Larissa Calancie
Doctoral Candidate - Nutrition Interventions and Policy
University of North Carolina Gillings School of Public Health
UNC Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

Christina Chauvenet, MSc
Doctoral Student
Maternal and Child Health
Royster Fellow
University of North Carolina Gillings School of Public Health
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

Cesar Octavio Ramos Garcia, MHN, CN
Doctoral Student in Public Health Sciences
Director of Nutrition
Tonala University Center
University of Guadalajara
Guadalajara, Mexico

Violet Kiesel
Graduate Student
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

Alexandra B. Morshed
Doctoral Student
Brown School
Washington University
St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Taulant Muka, MD, MSc, DSc
PhD Candidate, Erasmus MC, The Netherlands
Visiting Researcher at Harvard School of Public Health
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Luis A. Rodríguez, MPH, RD, CNSC
Doctoral Student, Epidemiology & Translational Sciences
UCSF School of Medicine
Pediatric Clinical Dietitian, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital
San Francisco, California, USA

Christian Wright, MS
Doctoral Candidate
Department of Nutrition Science
Laboratory of Nutrition, Fitness, and Aging
NSGSO President
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

Affiliations are listed for identification purposes only.


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